What makes a font a "gothic" font?
Itâ€™s easy to find lots of fonts with gothic in their names. But what makes a typeface a â€œgothicâ€ typeface?
A gothic typeface is not like medieval lettering at all. It actually comes from grotesk or grotesque which began around 1900. Itâ€™s basically a synonym for sans-serif and it is a movement that originated in the Scandinavian area and was widely applied by the Bauhaus.
Hence Akzidenz-Grotesk, hence Century Gothic, and pretty much any typeface with that name in it.
They are based off actual scripture from the Gothic period in history. See Letters and Lettering by Frank Chouteau Brown, Chapter 3, which covers Gothic.