I am confused with what colour profiles I should be using where, as when I upload any of my designs online or try emailing them over to clients sometimes they are fine, but a lot of the time they show up fluorescent or oddly coloured:
The web is all sRGB all the way. If you upload an image created in ProPhoto or Adobe RGB, it will show on the web as if it were sRGB. The result is a large or small color change, depending on the image. This is guaranteed to happen if your image doesn't have an embedded color profile; there are few circumstances in which a color profile will be acknowledged.
You can get some experience with this effect by doing a little experimenting in Photoshop. Open an image and use
Edit > Assign Profile (not Convert to Profile) to switch among different color profiles. Do this with a few different images and you'll learn to recognize the effect when you see it. If your default color profile is Adobe RGB and you download an image from the web (say, in a Google image search), it almost certainly won't have a color profile embedded. Open that in Photoshop and you'll see the colors, especially skin tones, look too rich, too red. Now assign an sRGB color profile, and you'll instantly see the difference.